CHAPTER 1 & 2 - Introduction of Physics & Forces and Motion
· Velocity : Rate of displacement
· Accelaration : Rate of change of velocity
· Momentum : Product mass and velocity
· Impuls : Change of momentum
· Impulsive Force : Rate of Change of momentum in short interval
· Free Fall : the object fall under gravitional force only
· Elasticity : return to its original length when force acting removed
· Principle of conservation of energy : energy cannot be created or destroyed but it can be transferred from one form to another
· Hooke Law : The extension or compression of a spring is direct proportional to the applied force until the elastic limit is not exceed.
· Zero errors occurs when the instrument gives a non- zero reading when in fact the actual reading is zero.
· Parralax error : error in reading / observer eye is not perpendicular to the scale
· Base Quantities : The physical quantities which are used as the basis for the measurement and can’t be derived from other physical quantities.
· Physical quantities are quantities that can be measured
· Derived Quantities :The physical quantities which were derived from base quantities by multiplication operation or division operation or both
· A scalar is any quantity with size (magnitude) but without specified direction.
· A vector is any quantity with size (magnitude) and specified direction.
· Accuracy is the degree of closeness of the measurements to the actual or accepted value.
· Sensitivity is the degree of a measuring instrument to record small change in its reading.
· Systematic errors are errors in the measurement of a physical quantity due to instruments, the effects of surrounding conditions and physical constraints of the observer.
- Density : is the mass per volume
- Pascal Principle : In the closed fluid system, an external applied force is transmitted uniformly in all direction.
- Archimedes Principle : upward bouyant force an a submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by
- Pressure : Force per unit area
- Density is mass per volume of the material
- Thermal equlibrium : When two object in thermal contact , no net heat energy transfer between each other/ rate of heat transfer is same between each other, same temperature.
- Specific heat capacity : heat energy required to increase temperature 1 C for 1 kg substance.
- Specific latent heat of fusion: quantity heat energy required to change 1 kg of a substance from solid to liquid without a change of temperature
- Specific latent heat of vapourisation: quantity heat energy required to change 1 kg of a substance from liquid to gas without a change of temperature
- Temperature : Degree of hotness of a body
- Heat : Form of energy that tranfer from hot body to cold body
- Real Image : Image can be seen on the screen
- Virtual Image : Image is not form on the screen
- Critical angle : Angle of incidence when angle of refraction 90
- 20W , 240V : the eletrical appliances use 240 potential difference/ voltage will release energy 20J in 1 second.
- Current : The rate of flow of charge